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a-Value joint air permeability
The density of a window is identified by the joint air permeability. The joint air permeability indicates leaks in window joints between the sash and the frame. Although it is partly responsible for the renewal of the air in rooms it also causes significant heat loss. The joint permeability also contributes to the sound transmission; here the a-Value (joint permeability coefficient) specifies the air permeability in milliliters per meter of joint length at a pressure difference of 1 kp/m per hour. As a guideline applies: a small a-Value means a tight seal of the window and thus a low heat loss and improved sound insulation.
By “absorption” we understand the amount of solar radiation in the visible range (380-780 nm) that is absorbed by the glazing. Absorption converts radiant energy into heat energy and therefore causes an increase in the temperature of the absorbing glass.
The use of glass in accessible areas is generally okay. We however recommend applying the following guidelines: “Requirements for accessible glazing; Recommendations for the approval process – Version march 2000” (Publication of 30th March 2001 in the DIBt releases, 32 Volume No. 2) TRLV final version 2006. In principle the process of approval is supposed to be carried out in particular cases. In that case the contact person is the highest planning authority in the respective province.
Accident-proof glazing (TRAV)
Technical rules for the use of accident-proof glazing. TRAV (Technical Regulations for Safety Barrier Glazing) includes all the requirements of constructive boundary conditions for the installation of glass structures and their proven impact resistance. In areas where a person may fall, TRAV is used in fixed-glazed lower lights and staircase windows. It consists of a combination of single-pane safety glass and laminated safety glass.
Here a single-pane safety glass is used on the outer glass pane, which is exposed to attacks. On the inside should be used a laminated safety glass. In the outer alarm glass pane a conductive alarm strip is burned into the glass surface, which activates the alarm, but only when the pane is completely destroyed.
Aluminium shell on aluminium/wood windows
An aluminium shell is mounted on the outside of the aluminium/wood window profile. They require little maintenance and are more resistant compared to wooden windows. Various designs in several RAL-colors are available for the aluminium shells.
On heat treated glass (e.g. single-pane safety glass / heat-strengthened glass) anisotropies occur due to an internal voltage distribution. When looked at in a certain angle it is possible to perceive dark-colored rings and strips through polarized light that is visible in the daylight or through polarized glasses. In this case the size of the polarization depends on the position of the sun, as well as the weather conditions; and is perceived more in a shallow angle or on glass facades that face each other.
APTK (ethylene-propylene terpolymer rubber, international: EPDM) is an extremely flexible, weather resistant, ozone and tension-resistant sealing material. Therefore, it is often used in window and door construction.
The arched window originated from the Romantic period as a round arch and later from the Gothic period as a pointed arch. The respective periods such as the Baroque, Rococo and Art Nouveau originated a variety of window creations. The tracery window was originally developed as a colorful stained glass window and built mainly in churches. The arched window was rather considered to be luxury and was reserved for the well-situated house owners.
Architects are responsible for the planning and architectural design and in accordance with the architect's contract provide the following services: Basic evaluation, creation of feasible designs, building applications as well as CAD-drawings. Thus an architect is in charge of the creative, technical, economic, environmental and also social planning of buildings.
A not so qualitative window can be enhanced by a good assembly. On the other hand, a poor assembly can have a negative impact on a high-quality window. The installation position, the installation method but also sealing layer and sealing systems are determined by the structural connection. With faulty planning of the connecting joints leaks inevitably occur. Moisture damage leads to mold formation. The connecting joint is of great importance during installation of sound proof windows. The connection joint between the window and the building must therefore meet the following requirements:
- Air impermeability
- Durable resistance to driving rain
- Stability of the window structure in the connection fastenings
- Prevention of condensation
- Inclusion of all occurring temperature related changes in length and possible changes in cross section of the frame profiles
The attack is called the side of a window where the wing is attached to the fitting or the bands. Depending on the rotational direction and opening direction of the window the DIN 107 distinguishes between DIN right and DIN left.